Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global health issue and development threat. Profound knowledge of the mechanisms employed by bacteria to defend themselves under antibiotic selective pressure is critical to controlling the rise and spread of resistant bacteria. A key factor in AMR development is the microenvironment that interacts directly with the bacteria and modulates their behavior. When challenged by antibiotics, the bacteria release large amounts of extracellular vesicles (EVs), tiny lipid enclosures containing biological information, in the microenvironment. We precisely examine the growth of live microbes (E. coli) to determine to what extent both the spatial distribution and content of EVs lead to heterogeneous levels of protection against antibiotics and the subsequent emergence of tolerant and/or resistant cells. The MicroVesi project will provide a better understanding of the EV-bacteria interplay in the routes of bacterial adaptation to antibiotics, both at the scale of individual cells and entire populations.